Sensitivity of optimal shapes of artificial grafts with respect to flow parameters.
The difficulties arising in the numerical solution of PDE-constrained shape optimization problems are manifold. Key ingredients are the optimization strategy and the shape deformation method. Furthermore, the robustness of the optimal shape with respect to simulation parameters is of great interest. In this paper, we consider fluid flows described by the incompressible NavierStokes equations. Previous studies on artificial bypass grafts indicated the need for specific constitutive models to account for the non-Newtonian nature of blood; in particular, the constitutive model was shown to affect the solution of the shape optimization problem. We employ a shape optimization framework that couples a finite element solver with quasi-Newton-type optimizers and a Bezier spline shape parametrization. To compute derivatives of the optimal shapes with respect to viscosity, we transform the entire optimization framework by combining the automatic differentiation tools Adifor2 and TAPENADE. We demonstrate the impact of the geometry parametrization and of geometric constraints on the optimization outcome. Finally, we employ the transformed framework to compute the sensitivity of the optimal shape of bypass grafts with respect to kinematic viscosity. The resulting sensitivities predict very accurately the influence of viscosity changes on the optimal shape. The proposed methodology provides a powerful tool to further investigate the necessity of intricate constitutive models by taking derivatives with respect to model parameters.